“If nobody asks me, I know what time is, but if I am asked then I am at a loss what to say.”
St Augustine 354 – 430 AD
Time is the one of the most elusive and mysterious concepts that philosophers and scientists have grappled with throughout the history of mankind. I am not even remotely qualified to expound on this subject and do not intend to do so. However, on the measurement of time as a practical everyday aspect of living, I do have an interest, particularly its measurement in Medieval times.
How did the poor medieval labourer or peasant know when to go to work and when to finish work? An anonymous versifier of the fifteenth century gives us a clue about one way to gage the start of day.
I have a gentle cock,
Croweth me the day
He doth me risen early
My Matins for to say.
In truth, things were not so haphazard as that. Bells from the local monastery were rung to signal the different hours of the day. The monks used sundials, hourglasses, calibrated candles and water clocks to calculate the time.
The latin system of counting the hours of the day was:-
Prime – 6 am
Tierce – 9 am
Sext – 12 noon
Nones – 3 pm
The Church designated other times for prayer:
Matins – Midnight
Lauds – Dawn
Vespers – Evening
Compline – Before Bedtime
The astrolabe was another method of calculating the hours of the day. Chaucer himself wrote a treatise, for his young son, on how to use it to tell time. Interestingly, by Chaucers time (1343 -1400), great mechanical clocks were beginning to be built all over Europe. These clocks were housed in the belfries of Churches and Cathedrals and later bell towers in city squares.
It is hard to say when the first mechanical clock was invented, but in Europe they began to appear by the late 13th Century. The earliest public tower clocks had no dials or clockface; they simply rang a bell on the hour. Some of the more elaborate ones triggered displays of animated automatons. The clockface and a single hour hand followed. Other ingenious clocks gave, not only the time, but all kinds of astronomical information.
In 1344 Jacopo Dondi installed an astronomical clock in the facade of the Palazzo de Capitano at Padua.
In England an extraordinary astrological clock was designed by the country’s greatest medieval scientists, Richard of Wallingford (1292-1336). Son of a blacksmith, he was a brilliant mathematician and was obsessed with the practical application of science and mathematics, to the extent that he was rather neglectful of his spiritual role and later his administrative role when he became abbot of St. Albans, the principle abbey in England. It is recorded that he gave precedence to the work on his clock over the repair of the Abbey. When mildly rebuked by King Edward III, he argued that any successor of his could hire workmen to repair the abbey but only he could design and make the clock. The clock was not completed in his lifetime but design details are recorded in his Tractatus Horologii Astronomici (1327). Richard’s was not the first tower clock in England but it was the most advanced in its design.
Time has always been considered a precious commodity. In the middle ages one of the greatest preachers and orators was Bertold of Regensburg (1220-1272) . Time, he said was one of the talents referred to in St. Mathews parable of the talents. It was man’s duty not to squander it.
This idea of the preciousness of time is well articulated in Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales when the Host address the Company before the Lawyers Tale:
“Let’s lose as little time now as we may.
My lords, it’s time that wastes both night and day,
That robs us while we sleep without defense,
And while awake, through our own negligence.
It’s like a stream returning not again,
Descending from the mountain to the plain.
Well Seneca, like others of his measure,
Bewails the loss of time more than of treasure:
‘Of chattels there may be recovery,
But we are ruined by loss of time,’ said he.”
I just wonder if Bertold of Regensburg or Chaucer would approve of the time I spend ‘on the Internet.’ ? Probably not.
You are too harsh on yourself, I’m sure Bertold and Chaucer would- apert from their obvious interest in and fascination with the internet itself- would indeed both approve of the time you spent informing and educating the rest of us. A lovely little story along ideas of time and time-keeping through medieval history, from England to Italy. Wonderful post and very interesting. Thank you.
a very consoling reply and I am glad you liked the piece. It is a very broad topic and so interesting that I was spending a lot of time researching it, which is usually accompanied by a niggling little voice saying ‘you could be doing something more useful.’
such are the perils of blogging Dermot. Rewarding yet insanely time-consuming. It is a very mixed blessing. That niggling little voice I also know so well. It’s hard to get the balance right. My dad used to say that every task took – conservatively- about two and half times our initial estimate. I have generally found that is right, and indeed conservative. to repeat that hoary old cliche: there are simply never enough hours in the day. Still loved your post however. Arran.
and about time too…
I’m told that when Big Chief Sitting Bull was asked by a reporter how long it took him to overpower General Custer’s army at the battle of Little Big Horn, not being familiar with watches and clocks and the like, he replied: “about as long as it takes a hungry man to eat his dinner”.
Good one, Godfrey. It reminds me of a poetry reading in Bray when a local bard was reading his ballad of Little Big Horn. A bored smart Alec behind me said “this poem is lasting longer than the actual battle.”